Glossary of 18th Century Cooking Terms and Definitions

Apron –
The belly skin of a fowl
Barbecue –
The noun of this word means a rack for drying meats. The verb usage ‘barbecue’ would mean to slow cook on a rack over burning embers.
Beetroot –
The globe root of the beet. The beet leaves are eaten also and these terms are to distinguish the two.
Blanquet –
A dish of light meat, such as veal, prepared with a white sauce.
Bombarded/Forced –
Stuffed using a bread and or meat type of stuffing. See forcemeat.
Caveach –
A West Indian method of pickling fish
Chardoon –
A vegetable related to the thistle that has its stalk used in cooking similar to that of celery or rhubarb.
Chibbol –
A stone leek or rock onion of medium size.
Chicken Peepers –
Young chickens
Chine –
The spine or backbone, mainly referred to on a pig in culinary terminology.
Collar –
Roll up a piece of meat, usually with a forcemeat inside, and tie it with string before cooking.
Collops –
Small slices of meat.
Cullis/Coulis –
A strong broth made of meat or fowl with other ingredients used as a base for various sauces or as a restorative for the sick.
Cymblin –
A scalloped edge squash.
a la Daube –
A braised meat (usually beef) stew with wine , spices, etc.
Florendine/Florentine –
Dishes with spinach as part of the preparation.
Forcemeat –
A stuffing with either meat or bread as the base.
French Bean –
Any of various varieties of Haricot or Kidney beans usually harvested for eating when still green.
Fricando –
Veal or other meat stewed/fried and prepared with a sauce.
Fricassee –
Similar in definition as above but for most all types of meat as well as fowl. Generally meaning twice cooked with a sauce either dark or light.
Froth –
To baste meat with fat and dust it with flour as it roasts, particularly fowl, so that the skin stays moist.
Gammon –
A leg of pork usually referring to the ham and shoulder but occasionally meaning a large piece of bacon.
Gill –
A fourth of a pint or 4 ounces.
Gobbets –
Small pieces of meat similar to stew meat size.
Gravy –
A broth or the fats and juices coming from cooking meat.
Griskin –
What today is known as the pork chop.
Harrico/Haricot –
A stewed mutton dish well seasoned.
Hodge Podge –
What today is usually referred to as a stew.
Larding –
Weaving strips of hard fat, usually bacon, through a meat to increase its flavor and moisture.
Leveret –
A young hare , under a year.
Merrythought –
The forked bone on a fowl.
Morel –
A common sponge mushroom.
Naples/Savoy Biscuit –
A very light cake with a great number of whipped eggs that allow them to become very airy.
Neat –
An ox or bullock.
Olives –
Small thin slices of meat that are filled with a forcemeat then rolled up a cooked usually by roasting. Similar to collaring but with smaller pieces.
Petty Toes/Trotters –
Pigs feet.
Pinion –
The very end of a fowls wing.
Pompion –
Pumpkin
Pottage –
A thick soup, stew or porridge.
Pudding –
A batter made with the minimum of eggs, milk flour. Bread puddings fit this classic example.
Pulpatoon –
A dish with either rabbit or small birds encased in forcemeat and baked.
Ragoo/Ragout –
Stewed meat dished that are highly seasoned.
Rasher –
A thin piece of meat usually referring to bacon.
Rocambole –
Spanish garlic.
Roots –
Any root vegetables such as carrots, parsnip and turnips.
Salomongundy/Salmagundi –
A layered meat salad that includes hard boiled eggs, onion, oil and other condiments.
Salsify –
Purple goat’s beard, esculent root.
Shoat –
Young pig.
Skirret –
Long thin vegetable root sometimes called a water parsnip.
Skorzonera –
Thin and parsnip like. Black salsify.
Snipe –
A small bird living in marsh or brushy areas. Wood Snipes and Jack Snipes for example.
Squab –
Young pigeons no more than 30 to 40 days old.
Sparagrass –
Asparagas.
Spinage –
Spinach.
Stones –
Testicles. Lambs stones as a prepared dish.
Sweetbreads –
The thymus gland.
Truss –
To affix a piece of meat or fowl on a spit for roasting.